Hook their attention: the fundamental principles

0.1 “Children spend less than a fifth of their waking hours in formal education.”: Stevens, R., Bransford, J. and Stevens, A. The LIFE Center Lifelong and Lifewide Learning Diagram, LIFE Center, 2005.


0.1 “The most useful analysis of this dispute I have come across was developed by Alan Friedman …”: Friedman, Alan J. Vive la difference. Differentiating science-technology centers from other leisure-time enterprises, ASTC Newsletter, January-February 1996, pp. 7-10.


0.1 “Curiosity is widely regarded as the engine of learning by educators and researchers …”: Engel, Susan The Hungry Mind: The Origins of Curiosity in Childhood, Harvard University Press, 2015.


0.2 “Researchers often distinguish interest as falling into one of two categories: …”: Renninger, K. Ann, Hidi, Suzanne and Krapp, Andreas (eds) The Role of interest in Learning and Development, Routledge, 2015.


0.2 “The emotions learners experience have been shown by researchers to have a powerful impact on …”: Cavanagh, Sarah Rose The Spark of Learning: Energizing the College Classroom with the Science of Emotion, West Virginia University Press, 2016.


0.2 “… neuroscientists have found that emotional engagement and understanding are inextricably bound up.”: Damasio, Antonio Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain, Vintage, 2006.


0.3 “This concept is based on an insightful model suggested by Roy Underhill …”: Underhill, Roy Khrushchev’s Shoe: and Other Ways to Captivate an Audience of 1 to 1000, Perseus Publishing, 2000, pp. 10-11, 34-35.


0.4 “Psychologists call these almost instinctive judgements of complex environments thin slicing.”: Gladwell, Malcolm Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking, Penguin, 2006.



Tool 1. Connect through your character

1.2.1 “But according to the theory of the performed self, …”: Goffman, Erving The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Penguin, 1990.



Tool 2. Embrace the liveness

2.1 “In computer game interactive storytelling this structure is known as the rivers and lakes model.”: Schell, Jesse The Art of Game Design: A Book of Lenses, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2008, pp. 264-5.



Tool 3. Express your emotions

3.3 “This effect is known as emotional contagion in social psychology.”: Hatfield, Elaine Emotional Contagion (Studies in Emotion and Social Interaction), Cambridge University Press, 1994.



How to improve

“One popular model for this progression is known as the four levels of competency “: Adams, Linda Learning a new skill is easier said than done, Gordon Training International, 2015.


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